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遗嘱信托遗产认证

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法 律 介 绍

    遗嘱(wills)和信托(trusts)都是重要的遗产计划(estate planning)手段。遗产计划是任何人都可以采取的最重要的措施之一,用来确保在他去世后,他关于财产和医疗护理的意愿被尊重,并且为他们所爱的人做以安排。遗产计划的目的主要有:一是确保实现你的意愿,二是减少或免除你的遗产所负担的税务,三是避免遗产认证及其费用和时间耽搁。
    遗嘱是遗产计划最基本的工具。通过遗嘱,可以对财产做出分配,也可以为未成年子女指定监护人,并指定某个成年人(遗嘱执行人(executor))来管理自己的遗产。
   信托是一种可以拥有财产的虚拟实体。由信托设立人(trustor)制定一份文件,把某些财产转入信托之中,并指定受托人(trustee)和受益人(beneficiary),由受托人管理信托,并根据信托文件把信托财产分配给信托受益人。放入信托的财产可以避免遗产认证,所以信托是很多人制定遗产计划时常用的选择。常见的信托是生前信托(living trust)和遗嘱设立的信托(testamentary trust)。
   遗产认证是使死者遗产中财产的法定权利转移给受益人的程序。你是不能把遗产带走的,法院将决定由谁得到。如果一个人死时有遗嘱(testate),遗产认证法院会确定这个遗嘱是否有效,审查对遗嘱提出的所有异议,安排偿还所有的债权人,并且监督这个程序,以确保剩余的财产按照遗嘱的条款和条件予以分配。如果一个人死时没有遗嘱(intestate),那么遗产认证法院会任命一个人来接收针对遗产的所有请求,偿还债权人,然后把所有剩余的财产按照这个州的法律进行分配。有遗嘱死亡和无遗嘱死亡的主要区别就是:无遗嘱死亡的遗产按照州法所规定的分配计划来分配给受益人;有遗嘱死亡的遗产(在支付完债务、税务和遗产管理费用之后),是按照他/她的遗嘱所示进行分配。

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